งานวิจัย : การทอผ้าพื้นเมืองของสตรีชนบทในภาคตะวันออกเฉียงเหนือ : การศึกษาในมิติทางด้านวัฒนธรรมและเศรษฐกิจ
Indigenous Weaving practices of rural women in the Northeast : a case study on culture and economic dimensions
This was a qualitative research which aimed at the study of the progress of both silk and cotton weaving managed by the rural women in the Northeast of Thailand. The research emphasized the economical, cultural and other aspects which helped make these local weaving groups possible and referred to the changes made from weaving for there own personal use into a commercial one. The research also looked at the administrative management of the weaving group.
The study and the analysis of the data were carried out at the same time by having the researchers and the assistant researchers spend there time living in the community in order to study the history and the context of the place. The interviews and observation on the womens local weaving were carried out. Moreover, interview with the key informants were made both formally and informally. The last method was used in every activity and in each season which was significantly related to the local weaving throughout the period of one year.
It was found from the result of the study on the history of the communities of Baan Kaina and Baan Don that the people in these two villages were originally of Lao Puan origins. These Lao Puans were skillful in weaving traditional pattern such as Khit and Mud Mee ( traditional tied dye pattern). Therefore, these skills has been passed down to the later generation and continue today.
The people here had been weaving for domestic use. Later townspeople hired these local people to weave and have the product sent for commercial purposes there were also interested groups of people in traditional weaving who supported this by buying the materials and have them made into skirts or other kinds of products. This attracted more people to buy locally woven material, especially from 1977 onwards. Thus, every villager could then earn an income from weaving.
Later on government had given its support to this weaving by having the villagers set up the traditional weaving groups at Baan Kaina first. This plan failed as the groups were not property controlled. However, the groups were revived again in 1987 at Baan Don. These same groups had received their support from the non-organization. Thus, the groups have continued the work effectively.
The management of the group was done by having a clear organization run by The Group Administrative Committee. The Committee set up the regulations which specified the qualification of its member. They also specified the regulations allocating the benefits for the groups and for the non-government organizations who closely controlled the work of the groups and also evaluated their work continuously.
As the result of having supporters who helped set up the group for traditional weaving for commercial purpose, the women at Baan Kaina and Baan Don were able to obtain a handsome income. They could work all through the year which was an important factor indicating a favorable economical aspect which meat that the labour effort on traditional weaving products was fully made by the villagers. It was truly due to the fact that these villagers work in there home in the same environment for accommodation and for manufacturing, they then felt more secure working at home so they could produce more material this way. As result, weaving enabled the villagers to earn a commercial income for their families and thus could be considered their main occupation.
From administrating this research there were some observations as follows : This research could not Represent the whole image of traditional weaving of the women in the Northeast on the culture and economical dimension. However, the researchers learned the procedures of work of the villagers including the thinking process which was at the foundation of their traditional culture. The researchers also attempted to solve the villagers problems by bringing out the latent potentialities of the villagers and transferred them into an economical benefit.